Tag: Spain

Posted on

Jean Marie Cardinal: Revolutionary War Hero?

As the American Bicentennial approached, the Smithsonian Magazine in April 1973 ran a story by Richard W. O’Donnell about Paul Revere not being the only messenger who rode to warn Massachusetts colonists on the night of April 18, 1775, as Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s “Paul Revere’s Ride” outlined. Revere did not complete his ride and when […]

by Steven M. Baule
1
Posted on

Texas and the American Revolution

In discussions on the American Revolutionary War, the contributions of Texas are seldom brought up.[1] But in the 1770s, Texas, inhabited by Spaniards and Native Americans, was a hub of activity. While the signing of the Declaration of Independence occurred on July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia, Tejanos (Texans) manned outposts, guarded New Spain’s claims, and reconnoitered […]

by George Kotlik
Posted on

This Week on Dispatches: John E. Happ on the Role of Pierre-Augustin Beaumarchais in American Independence

On this week’s Dispatches host Brady Crytzer interviews JAR contributor John E. Happ on the enigmatic Pierre-Augustin Beaumarchais. Best known today for his plays, The Barber of Seville and The Marriage of Figaro, he became a key player in French support of the American cause, primarily with organizing clandestine arms shipments to the fledgling Continental army. […]

by Editors
1
Posted on

Clarifying Beaumarchais

At the dawn of the American Revolution, France and Britain had been coexisting under a treaty of friendship since about 1765. Traded like properties on a monopoly board, the Seven Years War (1756 to 1764) won Britain new colonies in such places as Spanish Florida and the Caribbean, and also French trading posts in far-off […]

by John E. Happ
2
Posted on

The British Invade Nicaragua: The San Juan Expedition

According to Andrew Jackson O’ Shaughnessy, the San Juan Expedition was among “the most ambitious enterprises of the American Revolutionary War.”[1] In 1779, after Spain’s formal entry into the war, the British aimed at striking Spanish interests in Central America. They would invade by first securing control of the San Juan River in present-day Nicaragua. Their […]

by George Kotlik
2
Posted on

Opposing the Franco-American Alliance: The Case of Anne-Robert Jacques Turgot

The participation of the French on the side of the newly declared independent American colonies is widely acknowledged as the factor that tipped the balance in the American Revolution and ultimately led to the defeat of the British. This alliance, actually two alliances—one of commerce and one of military cooperation—was concluded in early 1778, but […]

by Richard J. Werther
1
Posted on

France and Spain Invade England—Almost

On February 6, 1778, France signed two treaties with the United States, one of Amity and Commerce, the other, a defensive Alliance.[1] In them, France recognized the absolute sovereignty and independence of the United States. On March 10, the Foreign Minister of France, the comte de Vergennes, sent a dispatch that included a copy of the […]

by Bob Ruppert
Posted on

The Annapolis Convention of 1786: A Call for a Stronger National Government

Speaking at South Carolina’s ratification convention in 1788, Charles Pinckney derided the Articles of Confederation as a “miserable, feeble mockery of government.” Pinckney was a young but significant figure at the Constitutional Convention along with his cousin Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. While coastal South Carolinians, rooted in Charleston, were likely to prevail in support of the […]

by Jason Yonce
Posted on

This Week on Dispatches: Robert Davis on Georgia and the American Revolution

In this week’s Dispatches host Brady Crytzer interviews distinguished historian Robert “Bob” Davis about Georgia’s unique role in the American Revolution as the colony that bordered Spanish territory and, after independence was declared, British East Florida. Georgia came slowly to the Patriot cause, remaining loyal to the King longer than any other colony, until they finally […]

by Editors
8
Posted on

“Be A King George”

“Be a King George.” Four simple, but oft repeated words drilled into the Prince of Wales from childhood by his mother, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. And through a faithful adherence to her command George lost an American Empire.[1] In 1751 Princess Augusta was widowed unexpectedly on the sudden death of George’s father Frederick. Though a tragedy, […]

by John Knight
Posted on

Our Man in Minorca: Lewis Littlepage, American Volunteer with the Spanish Armed Forces

The Revolutionary War was fought on a global scale, with six nation states engaged in battles across three continents and two oceans.  Volunteers from many European nations came to the United States to fight alongside the American insurgents: Antoine Félix Wuibert and the Marquis de Lafayette from France, Jordi Farragut from Spain and Thaddeus Kosciuszko from Poland, to name […]

by Larrie D. Ferreiro
9
Posted on

The Battle of St. Louis

While the War of American Independence was won on the Eastern seaboard by American and French battling the British, the future of the United States was determined in small, seemingly inconsequential battles in the western theatre. The battles west of the Appalachian Mountains would shape the destiny of the American nation by determining what land would become the United […]

by Jimmy Dick
4
Posted on

The Perfect Storm: Bernardo de Gálvez and the Gulf Coast Campaign

One of the genuine pleasures of research is the discovery of someone whose contributions are barely noticed in classroom histories, but without whom, events would have turned out dramatically differently. The Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, is one such figure.  His energetic and often brilliant contributions to the American Revolution ensured that the […]

by Lars D. H. Hedbor