The Journal of Thomas Anderson, Delaware Regiment, Part 2, April 1781–April 1782

"The Battle of Eutaw Springs," by F. C. Yohn, 1903. (New York Public Library)

Thomas Anderson’s journal, covering May 1780 through April 1782, has been lost, but a nineteenth century transcription resides in the Peter Force Collection of the Library of Congress, as Series 7E, Mss. 19,061, Item 4, Reel 1. Here is the portion of the journal from April 1781 through its conclusion on April 7, 1782.

Anderson recorded the miles he marched each day in a column running down the right side of each page. For readability, the transcription here places the milage at the end of each day’s entry.

Journal of Thomas Anderson’s 1st Delaware Regiment

1781

April 1st. Marched 3 [miles]

3d. Crossed Deep River, and marched up it 9 [miles]

7th Marched towards Buffalo Ford, and encamped at Brush Creek, 18 [miles]

8th Crossed Buffalo Ford and marched to the widow Spinks farm, 16 [miles]

9th Marched to Cotton’s farm, 15 [miles]

10th Marched and crossed Little River, 20 [miles]

11th Crossed P. D. [Pee Dee] River at Colston’s Ferry, 15 [miles]

13th Crossed Rocky River, 3 [miles]

14th Marched near May’s Mill, 18 [miles]

2304 [miles]

April 15 Marched 2 [miles]

16 Crossed Thompson’s Creek, the line between North and South Carolina, and marched near to Anderson’s Cross Roads, 17 [miles]

17 Marched to Big Linches [Lynches] Creek, 16 [miles]

18 Marched to Little Linches Creek, 12 [miles]

19 Marched within four miles of Camden, and took eleven prisoners. This evening General Green gave Captain Kirkwood orders to march with the Light Infantry under his command down towards Camden, and if possible to take Log town, which was in full view of Camden; and if he could take it for to maintain it until he received further orders — Leaving Camp about eight o’clock at night, arrived before the town between the hours of nine and ten, the enemy firing on us every now and then all the way. The enemy drew up in the rear of the town which they had set on fire on purpose to have a full view of us when we advanced; but avoiding the snare sent a Sergeant and some men round, who kept up a scattering fire with them for some time; which caused them to draw off into town and give us full possession of Log town by twelve o’clock.[1] We had some little trouble all night with the parties they sent out. About sunrise in the morning they sent out a party with whom we had a smart skirmish and beat them into the Garrison. About two hours afterwards came off the advance of our Army. Marched, 18 [miles]

2363 [miles]

April 20. Colonel Washington, with Captain Kirkwood’s Infantry and his Cavalry went westerly round the town of Camden — took the Redoubt on the north side of the Wateree, and burnt the Block House that was in the Redoubt, took forty horses and fifty fat beeves, which we brought into Camp Marched 4 [miles]

22. Marched Southerly round the Garrison, 10 [miles]

23 Marched back, and the Army encamped on a hill about one mile from the Garrison, and Captain Kirkwood with his Infantry in front,    6 [miles]

2389 [miles]

25 The enemy sallied out, and came on a small piquet that we had posted about one hundred yards in our front before ever they were discovered — the piquet fired on them from behind the trees until that we came up to their assistance. Captain Kirkwood give his men orders to take trees and act as riflemen. The enemy advanced in a solid column within forty or fifty yards of us before ever we fired one shot, and then give them a full volley, which put them in great confusion — give us the opportunity of firing several times before they could get in order. Likewise gained time for our Army to get in order. The action soon became general. They attacked us on the left of our line, which stood bravely, but by some mistaken orders on the right, the line was put in confusion, and was obliged to give way, and retired back to Sutton’s. — [2] 7 [miles]

27 Marched to Rudgeley’s Mill, 10 [miles]

29 At night received news that the enemy was moveing up towards us. The Infantry under the command of Captain Kirkwood was ordered down to meet them. — Marched about three miles, and found the mistake. Met Captain Bruff[3] that was wounded on the 25th, and taken prisoner, who was sent out with a flag in a waggon which the Militia took for a field piece. Returned to camp, 6 [miles]

2412 [miles]

30 Moved our encampment, 1 [miles]

May 1st. Was hanged five deserters that was taken in the action of the 25th of April,[4]

3d. Marched and crossed the Wateree River, 11 [miles]

4th Marched to the Ferry — took the Redoubt on the South side of the Wateree River, and burnt the Block House. Returned to Camp at the Twenty-five Mile Creek,[5] 16 [miles]

May 7th. Marched, 9 [miles]

8 The enemy crossed the Wateree, and was within two miles of our camp when our videt came in and informed us. We soon formed the Line and lay all day in sight of the other, when both Armies drew off.[6] We marched 4 [miles]

10 At night was sent out with a party of the horse after a party of Tories, and marched eighteen miles, but not coming up with them, changed our route, hearing that the enemy had evacuated Camden and came there the next day, marching,[7] 29 [miles]

2480 [miles]

May 12 Marched to Mr. Reynold’s Mill 12 [miles]

13 Marched to Mrs. Westons and joined the Army, who was encamped there, 18 [miles]

15 Marched[8] 18 [miles]

16 Marched to Captain Howell’s 6 [miles]

18 Marched and crossed the Broad River at the Island Ford 15 [miles]

19 Was executed three deserters that was taken at Fort Granby on the Congoree River.[9] Marched this day 25 [miles]

20 Marched 17 [miles]

2591 [miles]

21 Was ordered with Colonel Washington’s horse to go after a party of Tories commanded by Colonel Young — coming to the place where they had encamped, found they were gone. The horse took the road that we thought they had marched, in hopes of coming up with them we marched on after them. Coming past a swamp where the Tories lay, they came out on our rear, taking us for a party of themselves, but finding their mistake, took one of our men prisoner that had fallen behind — by this time we heard of them — faced about, marched up to them, and began a warm fire, which caused them soon to push off, leaving their prisoner behind, with one of their men killed on the spot. We took one horse, they being all mounted we soon lost sight of them. A short time after the Cavalry joined us, and before dark, killed four more, took six prisoners — Marched this day 23 [miles]

May 22 Crossed the Saluda River, surprised a party of Tories, in sight of ninety-six — killed four — Marched this day 9 [miles]

At night our Infantry was employed as a covering party to the Fatague that was making a three gun battery about one hundred and thirty yards from the enemy’s works. A smart firing was continued all night. About daylight was relieved by Colonel Campbell’s Regiment[10]

2623 [miles]

May 24 Opened our first Battery on the enemy’s star Redoubt,

26 Received information that Colonel Lee had taken two forts near Augusta in Georgia, killed forty, and took seventy prisoners, with a large quantity of stores, rums, &c.[11]

June 5th. Augusta was captured by Colonel Lee, taking all the Garrison prisoners of war: consisting of one hundred and sixty-five British, with the like number of Tories, all commanded by Colonel Brown.[12]

18 The Garrison of Ninety-Six was attacked on two quarters, viz: the Star Redoubt by the Main Army, and Homes’ by a party of Colonel Lee’s and Captain Kirkwood’s Infantry, the latter having three six pounders, commanded by Colonel Harrison. The works that were attacked stood out about one hour, then left it in our possession. The other being very strong, and the officers who commanded in the ditch being wounded, with the most of their men killed and wounded were obliged to give over the Attempt.[13]

20 Raised the seige, Lord Rawdon being within twenty-five miles with two thousand men. Marched towards Charlotte this day 4 [miles]

21 Marched this day 8 [miles]

22 Marched this day 16 [miles]

June 23d Marched this night and crossed the Ennoree [Enoree] River, 15 [miles]

24 Marched and crossed Tyger and Broad Rivers, 21 [miles]

25 Re-crossed the Broad River, and marched  6 [miles]

26 Marched to Tyger River, 7 [miles]

28 Marched and crossed the Ennoree River, and passed for the British; took a Colonel of the Tories and two others; one of them being a deserter from the South Carolina Troops, was tried and hanged by Colonel Lee’s orders, 12 [miles]

29 Marched this day 3 [miles]

2731 [miles]

30 Marched this day 20 [miles]

July 1st Marched this day 6 [miles]

2d Marched and crossed the Broad River 17 [miles]

3d Marched to Captain Howell’s 16 [miles]

4th Marched this day 9 [miles]

5th Marched and crossed the Congaree at McCord’s Ferry — was ordered to recross the river with the sick and lame, miles 29

6th Marched to Mr. Simmons farm on the Wateree River, 7 [miles]

10th Received orders from Colonel Washington to join him as soon as possible with what men I had fit for duty. Marched and crossed at Mc Cord’s Ferry, and lay all night in Fort Motte 10 [miles]

11th Marched this day 21 [miles]

July 12th Marched and joined the Army within four miles of Orangeburgh, where    the enemy lay; and sent out parties to decoy them out, but to no purpose. Colonel Cruger being within one day’s march with a reinforcement for Lord Rawdon, General Greene thought it prudent to withdraw towards McCord’s Ferry.[14] Marched this day and night 18 [miles]

13 Marched this day near Brown’s Mill. 11 [miles]

2895 [miles]

14th Marched and crossed the Congaree at Mr. McCord’s Ferry, and encamped on Simmons’ farm, 20 [miles]

23d Marched with Colonel Washington’s Cavalry to the forks of the Congaree and Wateree Rivers, and encamped on Mr. Dawson’s farm (a very sickly place) 8 [miles]

27th Marched to McCord’s ferry 1 [mile]

29th Marched up the Congaree to Mr. Lightwood’s farm; 6 [miles]

August 3d This day the enemy took possession of McCord’s ferry with one large boat and negro; on the news of which the Horse and Light Infantry, under command of Colonel Washington marched down to the Ferry. The Colonel had his horse wounded under him — we remained at the Ferry until evening, and returned to our former quarters, 12 [miles]

August 4 Marched and crossed the Wateree at Mr. Simmon’s Ferry, and encamped on Mr. Lambert’s farm, 13 [miles]

6th Marched and encamped on Mr. Yore’s farm, 4 [miles]

7th Marched to Captain Richardson’s[15] on the high hills of Santee, 8 [miles]

13 Received information that the enemy were taking of Colonel Richardson’s corn; Marched down, but the enemy had recrossed the river, and we returned to our encampment, 12 [miles]

24 Marched this day towards Campden [Camden],[16] 20 [miles]

2999 [miles]

25 Marched this day to Campden, 18 [miles]

26 Crossed the Wateree, passed the Army, and marched to Cols. [Colonel’s] Creek, 18 [miles]

27 Marched to Captain Howell’s on the Congaree, 18 [miles]

28 This day marched to Goodwin’s farm, and joined Colonel Washington; in the evening we were informed that the enemy had left Colonel [William] Thompson’s and were on their way towards Charlestown, 5 [miles]

31 Marched to Howell’s Ferry, where our Army had crossed. This day the General received information that the enemy had marched from the Center Swamp on their route for Charlestown, which occasioned the Horse with our Infantry to return to our former quarters, 12 [miles]

Sept. 4th. Crossed the Congaree at Culpepper’s Ferry, and encamped on Mr. Johnson’s farm, 15 [miles]

5th Marched and encamped with the main Army at Everett’s Creek, 14 [miles]

6th Marched to Halfway Swamp, 6 [miles]

7th Marched within seven miles of the Eutaw Springs, where the British then lay, Commanded by Colonel Stewart, 20 [miles]

3125 [miles]

8th This morning our Army was in motion before day light with a determination of fighting — We marched in the following order, viz: The South and North Carolina Militia in front, commanded by Generals Marion and Pickins [Pickens],[17] having, Colonel Lees Horse and Infantry on their right flank, and the State horse and mounted Infantry on their left. — The Second Line was composed of the North Carolina Regulars, Virginia, and Maryland Troops, having two three pounders between the North Carolinians and Virginians, and two six pounders between the Virginians and Marylanders. Colonel Washington’s Horse with our Infantry were the Corps de Reserve.[18] In this order we marched down to action; coming within three miles of the enemy’s encampment, we overtook a rooting party of sixty men returning in with potatoes, most of whom were either killed or taken. We met with no further opposition until we came within one mile of their encampment, when their front line was formed we soon brought on the action general. We drove their first and second line, took upwards of five hundred prisoners, besides three hundred they left dead on the field of action. The enemy took shelter in a large brick house. At this time our men were so far spent for want of water, and our Continental officers suffering so much in the action, rendered it advisable to General Green to draw off his troops, with the loss of two six pounders. Major Edmunds of the Virginians joined us in the British Encampment, with a small number of men, keeping up a smart fire for a small space of time. Finding our Army had withdrawn, made it necessary for us to withdraw likewise. We brought off one of the enemys three pounders, which was performed with much difficulty through a thick wood for near four miles, without the assistance of any but one horse. We got to our encampment that we left in the morning about two o’clock in the afternoon.[19] We were ordered back to take post about one mile in front. Marched this day — 14 [miles]

Sept. 10th Received intelligence that the enemy had left the Eutaw Springs the night before, and was on their way towards Monk’s Corner. We marched after them as far as Mrs. Martin’s, within twelve miles of the corner, and halted. Marched 20 [miles]

12th Returned back as far as Whistling Georg’s[20] 6 [miles]

13th Marched to widow Flood’s on the Santee River 14 [miles]

14th Marched with the Army to the road leading to Lawrance’s Ferry on the Santee River. Left them and marched to Mr. Caldwell’s Farm at the Half way swamp, 19 [miles]

3198 [miles]

15th Marched up the Congree [Congaree]to Mr. Kelly’s. 20 [miles]

16th Marched to Mr. Patrick’s. 13 [miles]

17 Crossed the Congree at Mr. Patricks. Marched up to Culpepper’s, when I took sick of a fever. Encamped at Col. Goodwin’s,[21] 10 [miles]

19th Marched to Mr. Piercy’s 11 [miles]

October 6th Marched to Mr. Simmons at the Wateree River 10 [miles]

Nov. 6th. Went over to headquarters to see some of the wounded officers,[22] 20 [miles]

10th Marched, and arrived after night at Goodwin’s Mill, 28 [miles]

21 Marched — Crossed the Congree at Howell’s Ferry, and encamped at Bever Creek, 15 [miles]

22d Marched to Colonel Thompsons, and joined the main Army,[23] 16 [miles]

3351 [miles]

Novbr. 24th Marched to Captain Reids, 2 [miles]

28th Marched near Snails Mill, and encamped at Mr. Kellers,[24] 22 [miles]

29th Crossed the Four Hole Swamp, and encamped at Mr. Imfingers in Homony Town, 10 [miles]

30 Marched to Four Hole Bridge,[25] 22 [miles]

Decbr 14th Marched to Mr. Rumps, 8 [miles]

15 Marched to Mr. Ferguson’s Saw Mills on the Edisto River, 12 [miles]

16 Marched to Mr. Perry’s near the main Army, 10 [miles]

19 Marched by daylight to the Army — was joined by the Virginia line — crossed the Edisto River, and encamped at Mr. Sanders [Roger Parker Saunders],[26] 20 [miles]

3457 [miles]

25th Marched to Ferguson’s sequestred Plantations, 5 [miles]

1782

Jany. 1. Marched to Col. Lee’s quarters at Mr. McQuinn’s [John McQueen?], with the Virginians, 6 [miles]

2 Marched and joined the troops at Mr. Ashburn’s, and returned to Spring Grove at Mr. Ferguson’s Plantations, 12 [miles]

4 We marched to Green Plantation belonging to Mrs. Elliott [Sabina Codner Elliott],[27] 1 [mile]

6 I went to Round O to meet part of our Regiment, 20 [miles]

8 Marched with the party of the Regiment; and lay at Parker’s Ferry, 15 [miles]

9th Crossed the Ferry, and Marched to Mrs. Elliott’s Green Plantation, 5 [miles]

11 Marched to Mr. Skirvins [Col. William Skirving], 5 [miles]

3526 [miles]

16 Joined the troops on their way from Stone, and returned with them to the Church, 17 [miles]

17 Marched to Drayton’s Cowpens, 2 [miles]

Feby. 4th Marched to Mr. Warring’s near Dorchester, 7 [miles]

7 Went to Headquarters for stores for officers of the Regiment, 20 [miles]

9 Returned, and found that the Regiment was marched towards Charlestown after a party of the enemy that was out, 20 [miles]

10 The Regiment came back,[28]

13 Before day was alarmed by our rear guard. Got under arms — lay until daylight; When we found that the alarm was not true, marched to Mrs. Gardners, joined the Cavalry, and built huts — lay until evening, then marched to Mrs. Spoolers, near Sandy Hill, 10 [miles]

Feby. 14 Marched to a Plantation of Mr. McQuins, 1 [mile]

3603 [miles]

15 Set out on my way to the Delaware State in company with Captain Peter Qaynett [Jacquett] Lieutenants James Campbell and John Platt, and staid all night at Mrs. Williams near Stone Church, 3 [miles]

16 Was joined by Dr. Hartley. Marched by eight o’clock in the morning and lay all night at Mrs. Hutchinson’s, near Four Hole Bridge, 26 [miles]

17 Marched by sunrise — took breakfast at Mr. Stewards, and lay at Mr. Frisons, on the banks of the Santee River all night, 36 [miles]

18 Marched early in the morning — crossed the Congree at McCord’s Ferry — drew three days provisions, and lay all night at Mr. Dawson’s, 25 [miles]

19 Marched to Mrs Guphill’s and lay all night, 17 [miles]

20 Crossed the Wateree at Camden Ferry — lay all night in town with Captain Finn, 17 [miles]

21 Marched to John Hickson’s, 17 [miles]

22 Marched to John Lesley’s, 27 [miles]

3771 [miles]

23 Marched to Neil Morrison’s N. Carolina, 25 [miles]

24 Parted with my company, and went to William Wallace’s, 7 [miles]

25 Marched to Baker’s Tavern, 30 [miles]

1782 Feby. 26. Joined my company, and marched to Salisbury, where we met Lieutenant Hyatt,[29] 13 [miles]

27 Marched to Mr. Waggoner’s, 12 [miles]

28 Marched to Mr. Lindsey’s 22 [miles]

March 1st. Marched to Colonel Pesley’s, 23 [miles]

2 Crossed the Haw River, it snowing, all day, and came to Mr. Bajon’s, 19 [miles]

3 Marched through Hillsborough to Mr. Whitehead’s, 19 [miles]

4 Lieutenant Platt and myself left our company and went to Mr. Grays, where we met with Captain Kirkwood,[30] 11 [miles]

10 Our Company joined us,

11 Captain Kirkwood set out with us on his way home to the State — lay all night at General rsons [sic],[31] 20 [miles]

12 Marched to Captain Summervill’s, 25 [miles]

3797 [miles]

13 Crossed the Roan Oak at Taylor’s Ferry — Came to Colonel Delaney’s after night, where the D. R. would not let us stay. This was our treatment the first night in Virginia; to lie in the woods,[32] 25 [miles]

14 Marched to Mr. Walkers, 30 [miles]

15 Marched to Dinwoody Court House — stayed at Scot’s Tavern, where Captain Kirkwood had his great coat and cloak stolen from him. 25 [miles]

16 Marched to Petersburgh, and stayed at Mr. Spencer’s, 18 [miles]

March 18 Went aboard of a sloop bound for the head of Elk, in company with Captain Kirkwood, Lieutenants Campbell and Platt. About twelve o’clock made sail — the 25th was drove ashore by a privateer called the Hookimsnivey from New York, in the river Pranketank, and was obliged to take our land taxes. Marched to Captain Laughlan’s Ferry on the Rappahannock, from Petersbourgh, 225 [miles]

26 Crossed the Ferry — took the route by Kilmarnock Church to Squire Taylor’s, 22 [miles]

4342 [miles]

27 Marched to Northumberland Court House, where there was a general muster of the Militia. Went a board of a boat bound for the head of Elk, commanded by Captain Brewer, in the Cone River. Sailed down to the mouth of the river, and went a shore at Mr. Croley’s, 16 [miles]

28 Made sail after night with a fair wind. Got near Patucksin, and was drove back by contrary winds into the Cone again. Went to Mr. Croley’s — Sailed this night — 30 [miles]

April 1 Marched to Youcomoco — went aboard of Mr. Mithaney’s Ferry boat. Crossed the Potomack to Pine Point, where we parted for the night. Captain Kirkwood and Lieutenant Platt went to Parson Sabastains, Lt. Campbell and myself to Mr. Cranes. —  22 [miles]

1782 April 2 Crossed the Patucksin at Juniper’s Ferry, and lay all night at Mr. Summerville’s, 25 [miles]

3 Marched to Mr. Smiths, 23 [miles]

4 Crossed the South River at Brown’s Ferry. Came to Annapolis after night, and put up at Mr. Middleton’s Tavern, 25 [miles]

5 Crossed the Severen River at the town, and marched to Baltimore — staid at Mr. Loe’s, Captain Hamilton’s quarters, 30 [miles]

4513 [miles]

7 Went a board of the Packett bound for the head of Elk, commanded by Capt. Simpson. Before night, landed at Frenchtown, and

 

[1]Guilford Dudley’s 1832 pension application refers to “the beautiful eminence of Logtown, which overlooked the enemy’s works three-quarters of a mile north of Camden.” and that the British burned the buildings. John C. Dann, ed., The Revolution Remembered: Eyewitness Accounts of the War for Independence (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 217.

[2]The British captured some prisoners in the skirmish and Rawdon learned Greene’s army was not as numerous as he feared. So “By arming our musicians, our drummers, and in short everything that could carry a firelock, I mustered above 900 men” and attacked Greene on Hobkirk’s Hill. The Americans were surprised and Rawdon claimed they were routed and pursued for three miles. He would have had a greater victory but for his shortage of cavalry. Rawdon to Cornwallis, April 26, 1781, William B. Willcox, ed., The American Rebellion: Sir Henry Clinton’s Narrative of His Campaigns, With an Appendix of Original Documents (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1954), 513-14. But on May 24, Rawdon wrote Cornwallis from Monk’s Corner that he had “to withdraw my force from the back country.” Rawdon to Cornwallis, May 24, 1781, Robert Wilson Gibbes, Documentary History of the American Revolution Consisting of Letters and Papers … 1776-1782, (New-York: D. Appleton & Co., 1857), 78. At the Battle of Hobkirk’s Hill, Greene inflicted 258 casualties in the 900 man British force, and lost 264 killed, wounded and missing. Howard H. Peckham, ed., The Toll of Independence: Engagements and Battle Casualties of the American Revolution (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1974), 85.

[3]Capt. Edward Bruff of the 5th Maryland was later exchanged and served to the end of the war. In 1794 he joined the U.S. Army and served until 1807.

[4]A trial of twenty or twenty-five deserters who had been captured at Hobkirk’s Hill took place on April 27. All were guilty “but some of them were more notorious offenders than the rest.” Greene ordered the execution of five and the rest were pardoned and returned to duty in the Maryland Line. Guilford Dudley, quoted in Dann, Revolution Remembered, 221.

[5]Lt. Col. Nisbet Balfour, commanding at Charlestown, wrote to Gen. Henry Clinton that “the general state of the country is most distressing [and] that the enemy’s parties are everywhere … I should betray the duty I owe Your Excellency did I not represent the defection of this province [as]universal that I know of no mode short of depopulation to retain it. Balfour to Clinton, May 6, 1781, Willcox, The American Rebellion, 520.

[6]Balfour wrote to Cornwallis that he had cross the Wateree on the night of May 7, intending to attack Greene’s army, but found his enemy “every where so strong, that I could not hope to force it without suffering such loss as must have cripped by force.” Balfour to Charles Cornwallis, May 24, 1778, Gibbes, Documentary History, 78-79.

[7]Lord Rawdon evacuated Camden and withdrew as he was convinced the defection of the country was so general, and “all his posts on the communication by which alone he could draw his subsistence were daily dropping into the enemy’s hands.” Willcox, The American Rebellion, 296.

[8]Camden was evacuated on May 10; Thomas Sumter captured Orangeburg with 89 Loyalists on May 11.

[9]On May 15, Henry Lee captured Fort Granby in Lexington County, South Carolina, which was garrisoned by 350 men under Loyalist Maj. Andrew Maxwell who surrendered. Peckham, Toll of Independence, 86. Major Burnet wrote to Francis Marion that five cannon and 348 prisoners were captured and that Greene’s army was marching to Ninety Six. Burnet to Marion, May 18, 1781, Gibbes, Documentary History, 74.

[10]Kirkwood recorded they “Spent the Day in reconoitering the Garrisson which was commanded by Col. Cruger.” Joseph Brown Turner, ed., “The Journal and Order Book of Captain Robert Kirkwood of the Delaware Regiment of the Continental Line,” Papers of the Historical Society of Delaware 56 (Wilmington: The Historical Society of Delaware, 1910), 18. Lord Rawdon, now commanding in South Carolina, had ordered the evacuation of Ninety-Six, but the commanding officer Cruger never received it. Roger Lamb, An Original and Authentic Journal of Occurences During the Late American War, From Its Commencement to the Year 1783 (Dublin: Wilkinson & Company, 1809; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1968), 364.

[11]Lee was disliked by many South Carolinians from his “habitual indifference” to those he considered his inferiors. It was a common comment among the Carolinians, that Lee would rather lose a dozen militia men than one of his horses. Joseph Johnson, Traditions and Reminiscencherees, Chiefly of the American Revolution in the South (Charleston: Walker & James, 1851; reprint, Spartanburg: Reprint Co., 1972), 405-406.

[12]Forts Grierson and Cornwallis at Augusta were besieged by Henry Lee’s Legion and Gen. Andrew Picken’s militia from May 22 until June 5. Fort Grierson surrendered on May 22, but Fort Cornwallis held out until June 5.

[13] Otho Holland Williams wrote from “Camp before Ninety Six” that the expected fall of Ninety-Six should unite all the people, though the inhabitants of South Carolina and Georgia were “the most unprincipled, abandoned Vicious Vagrants that ever inhabited the Earth” Williams to Elie Williams, June 12, 1781, Calendar of the General Otho Holland Williams Papers in the Maryland Historical Society (Baltimore: The Maryland Historical Records Survey Project, 1940), 46. Americans lost 59 killed, 72 wounded, and 20 missing while the Loyalists lost 27 killed and 58 wounded. Peckham, Toll of Independence, 87. Rawdon abandoned the fort on July 3. Capt. Perry Benson of Maryland was seriously wounded in the attack, and was carried to safety by a black soldier. Thomas Calderwood, “Thomas Carney: Unsung Soldier of the American Revolution,” Maryland Historical Magazine 84 (Winter 1989), 323.

[14]Greene had hoped to fight Rawdon at Orangeburg but “we could not entice them out. Our men were in high spirits and wished for action.” Greene to Andrew Pickens, July 15, 1781, Dennis M. Conrad et. aleds.,The Papers of Nathanael Greene Volume 9, 11 July 1781-2 December 1781, (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press for the Rhode Island Historical Society, 1997), 10.Gibbes, Documentary History, 106.

[15]William Richardson was a captain in the South Carolina militia and a commissary to that state’s troops.

[16]The army was marching to attack Col. Alexander Stewart’s army, then encamped at Thompson’s Plantation, near McCord’s Ferry. The Papers of Nathanael Greene, 9:218-19.

[17]The best account of the battle is Robert M. Dunkerly and Irene B. Boland, Eutaw Springs: The Final Battle of the American Revolution’s Southern Campaign. (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2017). Despite knowing that he was outnumbered, Lt. Col. Alexander Stewart determined to fight Greene as he felt the Americans’ more numerous cavalry made a retreat too hazardous. When Greene retreated, Stewart considered his “handful of men” driving the Americans “from the field of battle and taking the only two six-pounders they had deserves some merit.” Only the want of cavalry kept “the glory of the day” from being more complete. Stewart to Cornwallis, 9 September 1781, Willcox, The American Rebellion, 568. Williams wrote afterwards that “Victory is ours” even though Greene withdrew his army to refresh themselves. Williams to Elie Williams, 11 September 1781, Calendar of the Williams Papers, 51. This was the first time Francis Marion’s men stood in line of battle with the main Southern Army, but his partisan actions since the fall of Charlestown were critical to victory in the South. “Never in the South had the militia performed so well as they did on that sultry September day.” Hugh F. Rankin, Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox(New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1973), 245.

[18]“the rear was closed by Washington’s Cavalry and Kirkwood’s Delawares.” During the fight Washington was ordered to attack the British right, and galloped off. “Had he had the good fortune to have taken on Kirkwood’s Infantry behind his men, all would have gone well.” As it was, Washington’s cavalry was routed, though “Kirkwood, with his bayonets, rushed furiously to revenge their fall.” Unfortunately the American “thirsty, naked and fatigued soldiery” stopped to rumage the British camp and lost the offensive.  “Battle of Eutaw. Account furnished by Col. Otho Williams,” Gibbes, Documentary History,145, 152-53.

[19]The British took two American cannon, but lost one of their own. Lamb, An Original and Authentic Journal, 368. British regulars and Loyalists lost 85 killed, 351 wounded, and 257 missing; Americans 138 killed, 375 wounded, and 41 missing. Peckham, Toll of Independence, 90. On September 9, Greene’s general orders wrote that the light infantry corps under Kirkwood and Michael Rudulph “deserve the highest applause for their great activity.” The Papers of Nathanael Greene, 9:307.

[20]Greene pursued Stewart the next day, hoping to renew the fight, but did not catch Stewart. Brig. Gen. Paston Gould had joined forces with Stewart and moved forward on September 16, to force an action or push Greene back. Greene retired over the Santee and destroyed or concealed the boats to impede the British pursuit. Gould then withdrew to Monk’s Corner. Gould to Clinton, September 30, 1781, Willcox, The American Rebellion, 578-79.

[21]Greene moved the army to the High Hills of the Santee by September 16, and remained there until November 18.

[22]On this day newly arrived coats were issued; the Delaware troops received blue coats with yellow facings. The Papers of Nathanael Greene, 9:535.

[23]Nathanael Greene wrote to Robert Kirkwood on November 3 that he had learned Kirkwood’s infantry had left “the horse.” This could lead to the cavalry being surprised and “no small triumph to the Enemy.” Kirkwood was ordered to rejoin the cavalry immediately. Greene to Kirkwood, November 3, 1781, Papers of Nathanael Greene, 9:523.

[24]Greene left the main army and took a select force to capture the British post at Dorchester which was evacuated on December 1 after a skirmish.

[25]Kirkwood and his men were posted at Four Holes Bridge until December 13. The Papers of Nathanael Greene, 10:11.

Despite the fact that he had around 3,500 men, Lt. Gen. Alexander Leslie withdrew his troops closer to Charlestown, “not only to avoid any decisive action, but from the present disposition of the army, which I am with regret obliged to say appears to want confidence in a great degree.” Leslie to Clinton, November 30, 1781, Willcox, The American Rebellion, 588.

[26]Greene’s general orders of December 19 put Col. John Laurens in command of “the Detachment of Virginia and Delaware Troops.” Laurens wrote the same day that he had the Delaware troops with him at Parker’s Ferry. The Papers of Nathanael Greene, 10:74-75.

[27]Kirkwood left camp for home on January 4. The Papers of Nathanael Greene, 10:292n.

[28]Greene wrote to Henry Lee Jr. on February 12 that John Laurens would be taking command of Lee’s Legion, William Washington’s horse (the 3rd Continental Light Dragoons), and the Delawares, after Lee left the army. Greene to Lee, 12 February 1782, The Papers of Nathanael Greene, 10:358.

[29]Lt. John Vance Hyatt.

[30]Robert Gray’s, twelve miles northeast of Hillsboro, North Carolina. Kirkwood, “Journal,” 28.

[31]Anderson, Kirkwood, Lt. James Campbell, Ensign Platt and Doctor Hartley were the traveling group. Kirkwood, “Journal,” 28.

[32]Kirkwood wrote that Gen. Arthur St. Clair had had to pay three guineas for one night’s lodging after being invited to stay there and that he himself had been “requested only the floor to lay on which was refused me, & … choose to Lay in the Woods.” Kirkwood, “Journal.” 29.

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